Dr Öncel Yakar’s comments
Stones located in the gallbladder where some of the bile produced by the liver is stored are called gallstones. They can vary in size from sand grains to the size of a walnut. They are formed by the increase in the amount of some chemical substances in the content of bile stored by the gallbladder. In order for cholesterol in the body to become water-soluble, it is converted by bile salts and several other substances. If there is more cholesterol than bile can dissolve, the amount above it accumulates and forms first crystals and then yellow colored and soft cholesterol stones. 80% of gallstones in the Western world are of this type. Other gallstones, on the other hand, depend on the mechanism of the formation of dark brown or black pigment stones with a hard consistency, either due to an infection in the biliary tract or as a result of excessive production of the chemical substance called bilirubin, due to the increased destruction of blood products in some blood diseases. In these processes, the incomplete emptying of the gallbladder due to insufficient mechanical contraction of the gallbladder also contributes to the accumulation of bile crystals and the growth of these crystals over time to form gallstones.