Hemorrhoidal disease

Assoc. Prof. Didem Öncel Yakar

Dr Öncel Yakar’s comments

What is hemorrhoidal disease?
Hemorrhoids are veins of the anal region. The condition that occurs with varicosity of these veins is called hemorrhoidal disease.

What causes hemorrhoidal disease?
In cases such as disorders in defecation habits, unbalanced nutrition, pregnancy, obesity, chronic constipation-diarrhea, sitting for a long time, the pressure increases and causes enlargement of the veins.

What are the complaints of hemorrhoidal disease?
Internal hemorrhoidal disease occurs with varicose veins in the anal canal. In this disease, which progresses in four stages, painless bleeding after defecation, itching in the anus area, restlessness and swelling can be seen. External hemorrhoidal disease occurs with varicose veins around the anus. With the formation of a clot (thrombosis) in this area, severe pain, swelling and bleeding may occur.

How to diagnose hemorrhoidal disease?
People who have complaints about this area should consult a doctor. Diagnosis can be made after the surgeon’s manual examination. In some cases, advanced endoscopic examinations such as sigmoidoscopy-colonoscopy may be requested, to evaluate the large intestine.

How is hemorrhoidal disease treated with medication?
People with mild to moderate complaints can be treated with high-fiber food consumption, correction of stool habits, and hot sitz baths. In this process, creams can be recommended.

What are hemorrhoidal disease surgeries?
In advanced hemorrhoidal disease, the aim is to completely eradicate varicose veins. There are different techniques used for this purpose. The most appropriate treatment is decided individually for each patient among methods such as band ligation (strangulation of the neck of the vein with a band), sclerotherapy (injection of a chemical that will shrink the vein), coagulation (contraction of the vein with heat or radiofrequency), hemorrhoidectomy (surgical removal of the vein), or stapled hemorrhoidopexy (resection of a vein with a special instrument).

Common complaints such as pain, discharge, itching, swelling and bleeding in the perianal area are mostly due to benign diseases. However, these diseases are one of the main patient groups that General Surgery is interested in, especially because the negatively affects on quality of life. The correct diagnosis and choice of medical or surgical treatment are among the factors that increase treatment success. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Didem Öncel Yakar shares information that will guide you for proper diagnosis and treatment. May health be with us in every moment of our lives.